# Harmonic morphisms to P_4 – examples

This post expands on a previous post and gives more examples of harmonic morphisms to the path graph $\Gamma_2=P_4$.

First, a simple remark about harmonic morphisms in general: roughly speaking, they preserve adjacency. Suppose $\phi:\Gamma_1\to \Gamma_2$ is a harmonic morphism. Let $v,w\in V_1$ be adjacent vertices of $\Gamma_1$. Then either (a) $\phi(v)=\phi(w)$ and $\phi$ “collapses” the edge (vertical) $(v,w)$ or (b) $\phi(v)\not= \phi(w)$ and the vertices $\phi(v)$ and $\phi(w)$ are adjacent in $\Gamma_2$. In the particular case of this post (ie, the case of $\Gamma_2=P_4$), this remark has the following consequence: since in $P_4$ the white vertex is not adjacent to the blue or red vertex, none of the harmonic colored graphs below can have a white vertex adjacent to a blue or red vertex.

We first consider the cyclic graph on k vertices, $C_k$ as the domain in this post. However, before we get to examples (obtained by using SageMath), I’d like to state a (probably naive) conjecture.

Let $\phi:\Gamma_1 \to \Gamma_2=P_k$ be a harmonic morphism from a graph $\Gamma_1$ with $n=|V_1|$ vertices to the path graph having $k>2$ vertices. Let $f:V_2 \to V_1$ be the coloring map (identified with an n-tuple whose coordinates are in $\{0,1,\dots ,k-1\}$). Associated to f is a partition $\Pi_f=[n_0,\dots,n_{k-1}]$ of n (here $[...]$ is a multi-set, so repetition is allowed but the ordering is unimportant): $n=n_0+n_1+...+n_{k-1}$, where $n_j$ is the number of times j occurs in f. We call this the partition invariant of the harmonic morphism.

Definition: For any two harmonic morphisms $\phi:\Gamma_1 \to P_k$, $\phi:\Gamma'_1 \to P_k$, with associated
colorings $f, f'$ whose corresponding partitions agree, $\Pi_f=\Pi_{f'}$ then we say $f'$ and $f$ are partition equivalent.

What can be said about partition equivalent harmonic morphisms? Caroline Melles has given examples where partition equivalent harmonic morphisms are not induced from an automorphism.

Now onto the $\Gamma_1 \to P_4$ examples!

There are no non-trivial harmonic morphisms $C_5 \to P_4$, so we start with $C_6$. We indicate a harmonic morphism by a vertex coloring. An example of a harmonic morphism can be described in the plot below as follows: $\phi:\Gamma_1\to \Gamma_2=P_4$ sends the red vertices in $\Gamma_1$ to the red vertex of $\Gamma_2=P_4$ (we let 3 be the numerical notation for the color red), the blue vertices in $\Gamma_1$ to the blue vertex of $\Gamma_2=P_4$ (we let 2 be the numerical notation for the color blue), the green vertices in $\Gamma_1$ to the green vertex of $\Gamma_2=P_4$ (we let 1 be the numerical notation for the color green), and the white vertices in $\Gamma_1$ to the white vertex of $\Gamma_2=P_4$ (we let 0 be the numerical notation for the color white).

To get the following data, I wrote programs in Python using SageMath.

Example 1: There are only the 4 trivial harmonic morphisms $C_6 \to P_4$, plus that induced by $f = (1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 0)$ and all of its cyclic permutations (4+6=10). This set of 6 permutations is closed under the automorphism of $P_4$ induced by the transposition (0,3)(1,2) (so total = 10).

Example 2: There are only the 4 trivial harmonic morphisms, plus $f = (1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0)$ and all of its cyclic permutations (4+7=11). This set of 7 permutations is not closed under the automorphism of $P_4$ induced by the transposition (0,3)(1,2), so one also has $f = (2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 3)$ and all 7 of its cyclic permutations (total = 7+11 = 18).

Example 3: There are only the 4 trivial harmonic morphisms, plus $f = (1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0)$ and all of its cyclic permutations (4+8=12). This set of 8 permutations is not closed under the automorphism of $P_4$ induced by the transposition (0,3)(1,2), so one also has $f = (1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0)$ and all of its cyclic permutations (12+8=20). In addition, there is $f = (1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0)$ and all of its cyclic permutations (20+8 = 28). The latter set of 8 cyclic permutations of $(1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0)$ is closed under the transposition (0,3)(1,2) (total = 28).

Example 4: There are only the 4 trivial harmonic morphisms, plus $f = (1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0)$ and all of its cyclic permutations (4+9=13). This set of 9 permutations is not closed under the automorphism of $P_4$ induced by the transposition (0,3)(1,2), so one also has $f = (1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0)$ and all 9 of its cyclic permutations (9+13 = 22). This set of 9 permutations is not closed under the automorphism of $P_4$ induced by the transposition (0,3)(1,2), so one also has $f = (1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0)$ and all 9 of its cyclic permutations (9+22 = 31). This set of 9 permutations is not closed under the automorphism of $P_4$ induced by the transposition (0,3)(1,2), so one also has $f = (1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0)$ and all 9 of its cyclic permutations (total = 9+31 = 40).

Next we consider some cubic graphs.

Example 5: There are 5 cubic graphs on 8 vertices, as listed on this wikipedia page. I wrote a SageMath program that looked for harmonic morphisms on a case-by-case basis. There are no non-trivial harmonic morphisms from any one of these 5 graphs to $P_4$.

Example 6: There are 19 cubic graphs on 10 vertices, as listed on this wikipedia page. I wrote a SageMath program that looked for harmonic morphisms on a case-by-case basis. The only one of these 19 cubic graphs $\Gamma_1$ having a harmonic morphism $\phi:\Gamma_1\to P_4$ is the graph whose SageMath command is graphs.LCFGraph(10,[5, -3, -3, 3, 3],2). It has diameter 3, girth 4, and automorphism group of order 48 generated by (4,6), (2,8)(3,7), (1,9), (0,2)(3,5), (0,3)(1,4)(2,5)(6,9)(7,8). There are eight non-trivial harmonic morphisms $\phi:\Gamma_1\to P_4$. They are depicted as follows:

Note that the last four are obtained from the first 4 by applying the permutation (0,3)(1,2) to the colors (where 0 is white, etc, as above).

We move to cubic graphs on 12 vertices. There are quite a few of them – according to the House of Graphs page on connected cubic graphs, there are 109 of them (if I counted correctly).

Example 7: The cubic graphs on 12 vertices are listed on this wikipedia page. I wrote a SageMath program that looked for harmonic morphisms on a case-by-case basis. If there is no harmonic morphism $\Gamma_1\to P_4$ then, instead of showing a graph, I’ll list the edges (of course, the vertices are 0,1,…,11) and the SageMath command for it.

1. $\Gamma_1=(V_1,E_1)$, where $E_1=\{ (0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 11), (1, 2), (1, 6), (2, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (4, 5), (4, 6), (5, 6), (7, 8), (7, 9), (7, 11), (8, 9), (8, 10), (9, 10), (10, 11)\}$.
SageMath command:
V1 = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11] E1 = [(0,1), (0,2), (0,11), (1,2), (1,6),(2,3), (3,4), (3,5), (4,5), (4,6), (5,6), (7,8), (7,9), (7,11), (8,9),(8,10), (9,10), (10,11)] Gamma1 = Graph([V1,E1])
(Not in LCF notation since it doesn’t have a Hamiltonian cycle.)
2. $\Gamma_1=(V_1,E_1)$, where $E_1=\{ (0, 1), (0, 6), (0, 11), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6), (5, 6), (7, 8), (7, 9), (7, 11), (8, 9), (8, 10), (9, 10), (10, 11)\}$.
SageMath command:
V1 = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11] E1 = [(0, 1), (0, 6), (0, 11), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6), (5, 6), (7, 8), (7, 9), (7, 11), (8, 9), (8, 10), (9, 10), (10, 11)] Gamma1 = Graph([V1,E1])
(Not in LCF notation since it doesn’t have a Hamiltonian cycle.)
3. $\Gamma_1=(V_1,E_1)$, where $E_1=\{(0,1),(0,3),(0,11),(1,2),(1,6),(2,3),(2,5),(3,4),(4,5),(4,6),(5,6),(7,8),(7,9),(7,11),(8,9),(8,10),(9,10),(10,11)\}$.
SageMath command:
V1 = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11] E1 = [(0,1),(0,3),(0,11),(1,2),(1,6),(2,3),(2,5),(3,4),(4,5),(4,6),(5,6),(7,8),(7,9),(7,11),(8,9),(8,10),(9,10),(10,11)] Gamma1 = Graph([V1,E1])
(Not in LCF notation since it doesn’t have a Hamiltonian cycle.)
4. $\Gamma_1=(V_1,E_1)$, where $E_1=\{(0, 1), (0, 3), (0, 11), (1, 2), (1, 11), (2, 3), (2, 10), (3, 4), (4, 5), (4, 8), (5, 6), (5, 7), (6, 7), (6, 9), (7, 8), (8, 9), (9, 10), (10, 11)\}$.
SageMath command:
Gamma1 = graphs.LCFGraph(12, [3, -2, -4, -3, 4, 2], 2)
5. $\Gamma_1=(V_1,E_1)$, where $E_1=\{(0, 1), (0, 3), (0, 11), (1, 2), (1, 11), (2, 3), (2, 10), (3, 4), (4, 5), (4, 7), (5, 6), (5, 8), (6, 7), (6, 9), (7, 8), (8, 9), (9, 10), (10, 11)\}$.
SageMath command:
Gamma1 = graphs.LCFGraph(12, [3, -2, -4, -3, 3, 3, 3, -3, -3, -3, 4, 2], 1)
6. $\Gamma_1=(V_1,E_1)$, where $E_1=\{(0, 1), (0, 4), (0, 11), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6), (6, 7), (6, 8), (7, 8), (7, 10), (8, 9), (9, 10), (9, 11), (10, 11)\}$.
SageMath command:
Gamma1 = graphs.LCFGraph(12, [4, 2, 3, -2, -4, -3, 2, 3, -2, 2, -3, -2], 1)
7. $\Gamma_1=(V_1,E_1)$, where $E_1=\{(0, 1), (0, 3), (0, 11), (1, 2), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6), (6, 7), (6, 9), (7, 8), (7, 10), (8, 9), (8, 11), (9, 10), (10, 11)\}$.
SageMath command:
Gamma1 = graphs.LCFGraph(12, [3, 3, 3, -3, -3, -3], 2)
8. (list under construction)

# Harmonic morphisms to P_3 – examples

This post expands on a previous post and gives more examples of harmonic morphisms to the path graph $\Gamma_2=P_3$.

If $\Gamma_1 = (V_1, E_1)$ and $\Gamma_2 = (V_2, E_2)$ are graphs then a map $\phi:\Gamma_1\to \Gamma_2$ (that is, $\phi: V_1\cup E_1\to V_2\cup E_2$) is a morphism provided

1. if $\phi$ sends an edge to an edge then the edges vertices must also map to each other: $e=(v,w)\in E_1$ and $\phi(e)\in E_2$ then $\phi(e)$ is an edge in $\Gamma_2$ having vertices $\phi(v)\in V_2$ and $\phi(w)\in V_2$, where $\phi(v)\not= \phi(w)$, and
2. if $\phi$ sends an edge to a vertex then the edges vertices must also map to that vertex: if $e=(v,w)\in E_1$ and $\phi(e)\in V_2$ then $\phi(e) = \phi(v) = \phi(w)$.

As a non-example, if $\Gamma_1$ is a planar graph, if $\Gamma_2$ is its dual graph, and if $\phi:\Gamma_1\to\Gamma_2$ is the dual map $V_1\to E_2$ and $E_1\to V_2$, then $\phi$ is not a morphism.

Given a map $\phi_E : E_1 \rightarrow E_2 \cup V_2$, an edge $e_1$ is called horizontal if $\phi_E(e_1) \in E_2$ and is called vertical if $\phi_E(e_1) \in V_2$. We say that a graph morphism $\phi: \Gamma_1 \rightarrow \Gamma_2$ is a graph homomorphism if $\phi_E (E_1) \subset E_2$. Thus, a graph morphism is a homomorphism if it has no vertical edges.

Suppose that $\Gamma_2$ has at least one edge. Let $Star_{\Gamma_1}(v)$ denote the star subgraph centered at the vertex v. A graph morphism $\phi : \Gamma_1 \to \Gamma_2$ is called harmonic if for all vertices $v \in V(\Gamma_1)$, the quantity
$\mu_\phi(v,f)= |\phi^{-1}(f) \cap Star_{\Gamma_1}(v)|$
(the number of edges in $\Gamma_1$ adjacent to $v$ and mapping to the edge $f$ in $\Gamma_2$) is independent of the choice of edge $f$ in $Star_{\Gamma_2}(\phi(v))$.

An example of a harmonic morphism can be described in the plot below as follows: $\phi:\Gamma_1\to \Gamma_2=P_3$ sends the red vertices in $\Gamma_1$ to the red vertex of $\Gamma_2=P_3$, the green vertices in $\Gamma_1$ to the green vertex of $\Gamma_2=P_3$, and the white vertices in $\Gamma_1$ to the white vertex of $\Gamma_2=P_3$.

Example 1:

Example 2:

Example 3:

# Examples of graph-theoretic harmonic morphisms using Sage

In the case of simple graphs (without multiple edges or loops), a map $f$ between graphs $\Gamma_2 = (V_2,E_2)$ and $\Gamma_1 = (V_1, E_1)$ can be uniquely defined by specifying where the vertices of $\Gamma_2$ go. If $n_2 = |V_2|$ and $n_1 = |V_1|$ then this is a list of length $n_2$ consisting of elements taken from the $n_1$ vertices in $V_1$.

Let’s look at an example.

Example: Let $\Gamma_2$ denote the cube graph in ${\mathbb{R}}^3$ and let $\Gamma_1$ denote the “cube graph” (actually the unit square) in ${\mathbb{R}}^2$.

This is the 3-diml cube graph $\Gamma_2$ in Sagemath

The cycle graph $\Gamma_1$ on 4 vertices (also called the cube graph in 2-dims, created using Sagemath.

We define a map $f:\Gamma_2\to \Gamma_1$ by

f = [[‘000’, ‘001’, ‘010’, ‘011’, ‘100’, ‘101’, ‘110’, ‘111’], [“00”, “00”, “01”, “01”, “10”, “10”, “11”, “11”]].

Definition: For any vertex $v$ of a graph $\Gamma$, we define the star $St_\Gamma(v)$ to be a subgraph of $\Gamma$ induced by the edges incident to $v$. A map $f : \Gamma_2 \to \Gamma_1$ is called harmonic if for all vertices $v' \in V(\Gamma_2)$, the quantity

$|\phi^{-1}(e) \cap St_{\Gamma_2}(v')|$

is independent of the choice of edge $e$ in $St_{\Gamma_1}(\phi(v'))$.

Here is Python code in Sagemath which tests if a function is harmonic:

def is_harmonic_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f, verbose = False):
"""
Returns True if f defines a graph-theoretic mapping
from Gamma2 to Gamma1 that is harmonic, and False otherwise.

Suppose Gamma2 has n vertices. A morphism
f: Gamma2 -> Gamma1
is represented by a pair of lists [L2, L1],
where L2 is the list of all n vertices of Gamma2,
and L1 is the list of length n of the vertices
in Gamma1 that form the corresponding image under
the map f.

EXAMPLES:
sage: Gamma2 = graphs.CubeGraph(2)
sage: Gamma1 = Gamma2.subgraph(vertices = ['00', '01'], edges = [('00', '01')])
sage: f = [['00', '01', '10', '11'], ['00', '01', '00', '01']]
sage: is_harmonic_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f)
True
sage: Gamma2 = graphs.CubeGraph(3)
sage: Gamma1 = graphs.TetrahedralGraph()
sage: f = [['000', '001', '010', '011', '100', '101', '110', '111'], [0, 1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0]]
sage: is_harmonic_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f)
True
sage: Gamma2 = graphs.CubeGraph(3)
sage: Gamma1 = graphs.CubeGraph(2)
sage: f = [['000', '001', '010', '011', '100', '101', '110', '111'], ["00", "00", "01", "01", "10", "10", "11", "11"]]
sage: is_harmonic_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f)
True
sage: is_harmonic_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f, verbose=True)
This [, ]] passes the check: ['000', [1, 1]]
This [, ]] passes the check: ['001', [1, 1]]
This [, ]] passes the check: ['010', [1, 1]]
This [, ]] passes the check: ['011', [1, 1]]
This [, ]] passes the check: ['100', [1, 1]]
This [, ]] passes the check: ['101', [1, 1]]
This [, ]] passes the check: ['110', [1, 1]]
This [, ]] passes the check: ['111', [1, 1]]
True
sage: Gamma2 = graphs.TetrahedralGraph()
sage: Gamma1 = graphs.CycleGraph(3)
sage: f = [[0,1,2,3],[0,1,2,0]]
sage: is_harmonic_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f)
False
sage: is_harmonic_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f, verbose=True)
This [, ]] passes the check: [0, [1, 1]]
This [, ]] fails the check: [1, [2, 1]]
This [, ]] fails the check: [2, [2, 1]]
False

"""
V1 = Gamma1.vertices()
n1 = len(V1)
V2 = Gamma2.vertices()
n2 = len(V2)
E1 = Gamma1.edges()
m1 = len(E1)
E2 = Gamma2.edges()
m2 = len(E2)
edges_in_common = []
for v2 in V2:
w = image_of_vertex_under_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f, v2)
str1 = star_subgraph(Gamma1, w)
Ew = str1.edges()
str2 = star_subgraph(Gamma2, v2)
Ev2 = str2.edges()
sizes = []
for e in Ew:
finv_e = preimage_of_edge_under_graph_morphism(Gamma1, Gamma2, f, e)
L = [x for x in finv_e if x in Ev2]
sizes.append(len(L))
#print v2,e,L
edges_in_common.append([v2, sizes])
ans = True
for x in edges_in_common:
sizes = x[1]
S = Set(sizes)
if S.cardinality()>1:
ans = False
if verbose and ans==False:
print "This [, ]] fails the check:", x
if verbose and ans==True:
print "This [, ]] passes the check:", x
return ans



For further details (e.g., code to

star_subgraph