This is now almost completely * solved*! Kaisa Matomäki, Maksym Radziwill, Xuancheng Shao, Joni Teräväinen, and Terrance Tao solved the conjecture below in the “interior” of Pascal’s triangle (see T. Tao’s blog post for further details, with the link to the paper and a discussion).

It seems everyone’s heard of Pascal’s triangle. However, if you haven’t then it is an infinite triangle of integers with *1*‘s down each side and the inside numbers determined by adding the two numbers above it:

The first 6 rows are depicted above. It turns out, these entries are the binomial coefficients that appear when you expand and group the terms into like powers :

The history of Pascal’s triangle pre-dates Pascal, a French mathematician from the 1600s, and was known to scholars in ancient Persia, China, and India.

Starting in the mid-to-late 1970s, British mathematician David Singmaster was known for his research on the mathematics of the Rubik’s cube. However, in the early 1970’s, Singmaster made the following conjecture [1].

**Conjecture**: I*f denotes the number of times the number appears in Pascal’s triangle then for all .*

In fact, there are no known numbers with and the only number greater than one with is *a=3003*.

References:

[1] Singmaster, D. “Research Problems: How often does an integer occur as a binomial coefficient?”, *American Mathematical Monthly*, **78**(1971) 385–386.

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